(IGP) GS Paper 1 – General Science – “Tissue”

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS
(Pre) – 2013

Subject – General Science
Chapter : Tissue


Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a
complete organism. Hence a tissue is an ensemble of cells not necessarily
identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific
function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple
tissues. The study of tissue is known histology.

Animal Tissue

The structure of animal tissue is directly related to its function. Tissue is
groups of cells with a basic structure and function.

Type of Animal Tissue

  • Epithelial tissue

  • Connective tissue

  • Muscular tissue

  • Nervous tissue

Epithelial tissue :

It is a tissue that is made up of tightly packed cells.
Without much materials with in these cells. The reasons for the tightly packed
cells are to act as a barrier against mechanical injury, invading
micro-organisms and fluid loss.

Connective tissue :

Its main function is to bind and support other tissues. They
have sparse populations of cells scattered through an extra cellular matrix.
This extra cellular matrix is a web of fibers that is woven in a homogeneous
ground substance they can be liquid, solid, or jelly like.

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Muscular tissue :

It is specialized for an ability to contract muscle cells.
These are elongated and referred to as muscle fibers. When a stimulates is
received at one end of a muscle cell, a wave of excitation is conducted through
the entire cell so that all parts contract in harmony. There were three types of
muscle cells: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles.

Nervous tissue :

This tissue is specialized with a capability to conduct
electrical impulses and convey information from one area of the body to another.
Most of the nervous tissue (98%) is located in the central nervous system. The
brain and spinal cord. There are two types of nervous tissue neurons and

Plant Tissue :

Plants are composed of three major organ groups- roots, stems
and leaves. These are comprised of tissue working together for a common goal
(function). In turn tissues are made up of number of cells which are made of
elements and atoms on the most fundamental level. Plant tissue can be divided
differently into two types:

  • Permanent tissues

  • Meristematic tissue

Permanent tissue :

Plant tissue are characterized and classified according to
their structure and function. These tissues can be simple, consisting of a
single cell type. They can also be complex, consisting of more than one cell
type. These tissues are incapable of cell division. Therefore these tissues are
called permanent tissue.

Meristematic tissue :

Meristematic tissue consists of activity dividing cells. This
is found in regions such as the tips of stems or roots and lead to increase in
length and thickness of the plant this cells are spherical, oval polygonal and
rectangular and have their cell walls.

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