(IGP) GS Paper 1 – History of India & Indian National Movement – “Gupta & Post-Gupta Period – Society, Economy & Polity”

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS
(Pre) – 2013

Subject –  History of India &
Indian National Movement
Chapter : Gupta & Post-Gupta Period: Society,
Economy & Polity

Taxes in Gupta Period

  • Sulka – Customs & tolls

  • Sadbhaga – Land revenue (Ref. Kautilya)

  • Bhaga – Royal share of produce 1/6 of the total, first
    reference in Arthashastra

  • Bhoga – Periodica l supplies of fruit, flowers,
    firewood etc. to the king(in the nature of kings rights & privileges)

  • Bali
    a) A type of land revenue                
    b) A tpetty cess besides kings normal share-Arthasastra                  
    c) Additional & oppressive tax- Ref. Jaakas                  
    d) Emergency tax from which chief Ministers were exempted –ref. Millind Panho

  • Bhaga Bhoga– Landrevenue and supplies of first flower
    etc. to the king.

Various Commentary & Bhasya

  • Vishwarup wrote a commentary known as Balasera on Yavjnavalkya’s Smriti.
  • Megatithi wrote a commentary on Manusmriti
  • Bhattaswami wrote a commentary known as Pratipada Panchika on Kautilya’s
    Arth Shastra. It was completed by Vishnugupta.
  • Vijananeshwar wrote a commentary known as Mitakshara (on civil Law) on
    Yajnavlkya’s law book.

Facts about ancient literature

1. Various texts were written

  • First text of Sanskrit grammer is Ashtadhyayi (500BC) by Panini. There
    are  8 chapters and 400 sutras in it.
  • In 200 BC Patanjali wrote the Mahabhashya on the grammar of Panini.
  • In 700 AD Kashika was written by jayaditya and Vaman on A shtadhyayi.

2. Pachtantra is the earliest story collection.

  • It is compiled by Vishnu Sharma.
  • This book is of Gupta period.

3. Hitopadesh is second famous collection of Indian stories.

  • Its writer is Narayan

4. Abhijanashkuntalamis the best text of Kalidas.

  • It contains the description of king Dushyant of (Hastinapur)

5. Two famous plays of Vishkhadutta are Mudrarakshasa and

  • In Mudarakshas there is a description of Chandragupta Maurya and in
    Devichandraguptam description of Gpata ruler Ramgupta.

6. Mrichchhkatika is written by Shudrak.

  • This is a social play.
  • It contains the love storey of Brahman charudata and the famous
    courtesan of Ujjayani, Vasantsena.

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Sixteen Mahajanpadas (600 BC)



1. Gandhara


2. Kamboja

3. Assaka (Ashrka)


4. Vatsa

Kaushambi (on
the bank of river Yamuna)

5. Avanti


6. Shurasena


7. Chedi

8. Malla


9. Kurus


10 Panchala


11. Matsya


12. Vajjis (A
confederacy  of republic)


13. Anga


14. Kashi


15. Kosala


16. Magadha

Girivraja or
Rajagriha (1st Capital),
 Pataliputra (2nd Capital)

Detail Description, Analysis and More MCQs of the Chapter Buy this Study

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