(IGP) GS Paper 1 – History of India & Indian National Movement – “Post Mauryan Period (200 B.C.-300 A.D. )”

Integrated Guidance Programme of General Studies for IAS
(Pre) – 2013

Subject –  History of India &
Indian National Movement
Chapter : Post Mauryan Period (200 B.C.-300 A.D. )

Foreign Rulers: Indo-Greeks

  • First contact – during the invasion of Alexander,
    326-27 BC

  • Second contact – during the battle between Seleucas
    Nikator and Chandragupta Maurya 306 BC.
    Chandragupta defeated Seleucas and a matrimonial alliance was established
    First important Greek king was Demetrius.
    He issued bilingual coins.
    He was defeat by Pushyamitra Sunga.

  • Greek king: Menander or Milinda.
    His coins bear the image of Dhammachkra.
    He accepted Buddhismi
    The book Milinda-Panho is a collection of his questions and answers given by
    His capital was Sakal and Sialkot
    He was also defeated by Pushyamitra Sunga

  • Important king: Antaaliokus.
    His ambassador Heliodorus came to the court of a shunga king and created a
    garudadhwaj at Besnagar or Bhilsa and called himself a Parmbhagvat.

The Shakas

  • His coins bear the image of Buddha and Shiva.
  • His Junagarh / Girnar Inscription. 150 AD is the first inscription in
    Chaste Sanskrit.

The Pahalavas/Parthians

  • The only important king was Gondophernes.
  • St. Thomas reached India during his time.

The Kushavas

  • They belonged to Yuechi tribe.
  • Wima Kadiphises
  • He adopted the title Devaputra which was inspired by the title
    Swargputra of the Chinese emperor.
  • His capital was Purushpur (Peshawar).
  • He introduced Saka era, 78 AD.
  • His rule extended from Afghanistan to Mathura and Banaras.
  • Being inspired by his teacher Parva he convened a Buddhist council at
    Kundalvana in Kashmir whose President was Vasumitra and Vice-President was
    Aswaghoasa. In the Council Mahavibhashsustra was compiled.
  • He patronised Mathura Art and built a stupa at Purushpur. A headless
    statue of Kanishka has been discovered from village Mat in Mathura.
  • His coins bear the images of Heracles, Sun, Moon, Shiva, Agni and
    Serapis.
  • Nagarjuna, Charak and Mathur (a great diplomat) were associated with his
    court.

The Cheras

  • Area – Kerala.
  • Capital – Vanji/ Karur/ Karuvur at the month or on the river PERIYAR.
  • Seaport – Musiri/Muziris, second important port was tondi.
  • Titles – Vanavar, Villavar, Kudavar, Kuttuvar, Poraiyar, Malaiyar.

Tamil Works of Earliest Period

Tolkappiyam

  • Written by Tolakapiyar, one of the 12 deciples of saint
    Agastya and who played dynamic role in Aryanisation of South India.

  • Work on Tamil grammer.

THE SATAVAHANAS

IMPORTANT KINGS

  • Simuka
    Founder of the Satavahana dynasty.

  • Satakarni I
    Adopted the title of ‘Dakashinapathapati’

  • Hala
    Wrote Gathasaptashati / Sagtsati / Satsal in Paisachi Prakrit.
    Gunadhya the writer of Brihat Katha in his court.

  • Gautamiputra Satakarni
    Called himself destroyer of Shalvas (Scythians), Yavanas (Greek) and
    Pahalavas (Parthians)
    Called himself “Ekbrahmin”.

  • Yajna shri Shatakarni
    His coins bear impression of ‘ship’, fish and shell.

THE PALLAVAS

Some Facts

  • Capital was Kanchipuram

  • Dynasty founded by Vishnugopa who was captured and then
    liberated by Samudragupta

  • However definite history of the dynasty begins with the
    accession of Simhavishnu in second half of 6th century. Important Kings.

MAHENDRAVARMAN

  • Himself a dramatist and poet, wrote a play Mattavilasa
    Prahasan (the Delight of the drunkard), A burlesque

  • Adopted litter Vichitrachitta (Curious Minded)

  • Finest rock cut temples were built during his reign (e.g.
    temples at Mahabalipuram)

  • Known as Caitya-kari (Builder of Caityas & temples).

  • Adopted the little Matta-Vilas.

NARSIMHAVARMAN

  • In 642 AD defeated ulkeshin II with the help of the king
    of Ceylon and sacked Vatapi, took back the territories which were under
    Mahendraverman.

  • Founded the city of Mamallapuram/ Mahabalipuram.

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Rajendra Chola I (1012 -1044 A.D.)

  • Title – Uttam Chola, Panditya Gangaikond Chola.

  • Chola expansionist policies continued

  • Battle of Koppam(1052):- In this battle he
    defeated Chalukya ruler Someshwar-I and killed him.

  • Adhi Rajendra:- He defeated Chalukya ruler
    Someshwar II in Kuval Sangamwar and killed him.

  • Kulotunga I :- (1070-1120 A.D.) He given the
    Patronisation of Adyar Kakkunllar who has written hole our Shilpadikani.

  • Administration of Chola:- Chola were famous for local
    self Government.
    Mandalam – State
    Balnadu – District Nadu – Sub-District
    Kurram – Group of Villages
    Gram – Village.

Bahmani Kingdom

  • Established in 1347 A.D.

  • Founder – Allaudin Hussain Bahamansah (Hasan Gangu).

  • Capital – Gulbarga.

Firojsah Bahmani:- 

  • He defeated Vijaynagar ruler. Devraja I and married with
    his daughter.

  • According to Farista he knew Urdu, Kannada, Marathi and
    Persian.

  • He has great interest in Astronomy and he built a
    Vedshala in Daulatabad.

Chandra Gupta I (319-335 A.D)

  • First Indian ruler who has taken title of Maharajadhiraj.

  • He issued Gupta Samvat. (319-20A.D).

  • He was married with Kumaridevi Princess of Lichehavi
    ruler.

  • On the coin of Chandragupta 1. One side had the picture
    of Kumaridevi and Chatidra Gupta I and on the otherside picture of Lakshmi
    and Lichawayah were written.

Samudra Gupta: (335-380 A.D)

  • V. A. Smith called him Napolian of India.

  • Title:- Kacha, Kaviraja, Kridant Parsu, Sarv-raja. Hero
    of 100. wars.

Chandragupta II chandragupta Bikramaditya. (389-412 A.D)

  • TitIe- Sakari, Sahshank, Devraj, Rajrajarshi, Param
    Bhagwat.

  • Chandragupta II was also called the lord of Ujjain and
    Patliputra. It seems that his another capital was Ujjain.

  • His Wife was Druvadevi.

  • Son Kumargupta.

  • His daughter Prabhayati was married to Vakatak ruler
    Rudrasen II.

  • During his tenure Fa4iien came India.

Nine gems of Chandragupta II court.

  • Kalidasa

  • Amar Singh

  • Varahmihir

  • Dhanvantari

  • Betal Bhatta

  • Sanku

  • Ghatt-Karpar

  • Var-ruchi

  • Kshapanak

Skandhgupta (455-467 A.D)

  • Titles:- Vikrarnaditya, Sakraditya, Lord of hundred
    ruler.

  • Lord Vishnu and Laxmi were shown as wife husband on
    Skandh Gupta’s coin.

  • His vaisya officer Prandutta reconstract the Sudarshana
    Lake.

  • Bhitari inscription his victory over Hunas.

Administrative Setup

  • State(Country)                     Bhukti

  • District                                 Vishay

  • Sub-District                         Vithi

  • Group of village                    Pethak

  • Village                                 Gram

Type of land

  • Kshetra – Fertile land

  • Khil – Unfertile land

  • Aprabata – Forested land

  • Vastu – Habitable land.

(a) Aryabhatt- Aryabhattium, Suryasiddhanta.

  • He calculated the value of (n) which was 3.142.

  • He calculated perimeter of earth. 40,232 km.

  • He also discovered the location of status on the basis of
    Babilonians.

  • He also finded out the causes of solar and Lunar eclipses
    and said sun is fixed at point and earth is revolving around the sun.

  • He also said that earth is round.

(b) Varahmihir:- 

  • Written Brihatjatak, Laghujatak and Panchsiddhantika.

(c) Brahmgupta:

  • He discovered that due to natural reason all the goods
    falls, down from upper level to lower level.

  • He Written Brahmasphutta.

  • Khand — Khandayanka.

Pushyabhuti Dynasty

Harsha:-

  • Harshvardhan had written three plays. Priyadarshika,
    Nagananda, Ratnavali.

  • He had also written two Buddhist poems. (a) Suprabhat (b)
    Astamahasree Chaitya.

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