(IGP) IAS Pre: GS – Environment – Ecology : Ecology and Eco System

ECOLOGY
Ecology and Eco System

Ecology and Ecosystem

India is the first country that has made
constitutional provisions for protection and
improvement of the environment. In the Directive
Principles of State Policy, of the Constitution,
Article 48-A of Chapter IV enjoins the state to make
endeavor for protection and improvement of the
environment and for safe-guarding the forest and
wild life of the Country. In Article 51A(g) of the
Constitution, one of the fundamental duties of
every citizen of India is to protect and improve the
natural environment including forests, lakes,
rivers and wild life and to have compassion for
living creatures.

Ecology is derived from the word “Eco”. It certainty
isn’t a new word. In Greek “oikos”, it means the
home, the place where we live. Ecology is the
science to study how all living creatures interact
within our home – our environment on this
fascinating, complex Spaceship Earth.

In ecology, an ecosystem is a naturally occurring
assemblage of organisms (Plant, animal and other
living organisms—also referred to as a biotic
community or biosensors) living together with
their environment (or biotope), functioning as a
unit of sorts

The term “ecosystem” first appeared in a 1935
publication by the British ecologist Arthur Tansely.
However, the term had been coined already in 1930
by Tansley’s colleague Roy Clap-ham.

India’s major strength in in-situ conservation lies
in its impressive Protected Area (PA) network,
which currently comprises 661 PAs which includes
ninety nine National Parks and five hundred fifteen
Wildlife Sanctuaries, forty three Conservation
Reserves and four Community Reserves
established under the Wildlife (Protection) Act,
(WPA), 1972] covering approximately 4.80 per cent
of the total geographical area of the country. India
also has special flagship programmer for the
conservation of tiger and elephant. India’s PAs grew
by 15 per cent since the adoption of the Programme
of Work on PAs in 2002. The top five states in terms
of PA coverage are Gujarat, Maharasthra, Jammu
& Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
The PA network coves about 24.2 per cent of the
forest area of the country, mainly with relatively
larger populations of target species and associated
ecological components. Under this Scheme, 100
per cent grant is provided for identified items of
non-recurring expenditure. Also, 50 per cent
assistance is provided in respect of recurring items
of expenditure. For areas located in mountainous,
coastal, deserts and with indentified endangered
species, 100 per cent financial support is provided
for both recurring and non-recurring items of work.
An amount of Rs.80.00 crore was allocated during
the year 2009-10 under the Scheme. A total of nine
extensive surveys were undertaken during this
year viz. Gulf of Mannar, Sunderbans, Nokrek
(Biosphere Reserve), Kumbhalgarh, Dalma,
Radhanagiri, Kanyakumari (Wildlife Sanctuary),

Important Facts

  • India is the first country that has made constitutional provision for protection and improvement
    of the environment. In the Directive Principles of State Policy of the Constitution Article 48-A of
    Chapter IV enjoins the state to make endeavor for protection and improvement of the environment
    of the environment and for safeguarding the forest and wild life of the country

  • Ecology is derived from the word “Eco”. It word In Greek “oikos”, it means the home, the place
    where we life. Ecology is the science to study how all living creatures interact within our home
    our environment on this fascinating, complex Spaceship Earth

  • India’s major strength in situ conservation lies in its impressive Protected Area (PA) network
    which currently comprises 661 PAs which includes ninety nine National Parks and live hundred
    fifteen Wildlife Sanctuaries forty three Conservation Reserves and four
    Community Reserves.

Conservation Reserves

State  S.No.  Name  Area (sq. km.) District
Tamil Nadu 1  Tiruppadaimarathur  0.03 Tiruneveli
Uttarakhand 2 Asan Barrage  4.444 Dehradun
  3 Jhilmi Jheel 37.84 Haridwar
Karnataka  4  Bankapur Peacock 0.56  Haveri
  5 Jayamangali Blackbuck 3.23  Tumkur
Haryana 6 Bir Bara Ban 4.19 Jind
  7  Saraswati 44.53  Kurukshetra & Kaithal
Maharashtra 8  Bhorkada (Bhorgad)  3.49  Nashik
Gujarat 9 Chharidhandh Wetland 227.00  Kachchh
Jammu & Kashmir 10 Ajas (WL) 1.00  Bahdipora
  11 Ajas 48.00 Bahdipora
  12  Bahu 19.75 Jammu
  13  Boodh Karbu 12.00  Kargil
  14  Brain Nishat 15.75 Srinagar
  15  Chatlam, Pampore (WL)  0.25  Pulwama
  16  Gharana (WL) 7.25 Jammu
  17  Hokera (Ramsar Site) (WL)  13.75  Srinagar
  18  Hygam(WL) 7.25  Baramula
  19 Jawahar Tunnel 18.00  Doda
  20  Khanagund 15.00  Pulwama
  21  Khimber / Dara / Sharazbal 34.00  Srinagar
  22  Khiram 15.75  Anantnag
  23  Khonmoh 67.00  Pulwama
  24  Khrew 50.25  Pulwama
  25  Kukarian (WL)  24.25  Jammu
  26  Malgam (WL) 4.50 Baramula
  27  Manibugh (WL) 4.50  Pulwama
  28  Mirgud (WL) 4.00  Budgam
  29  Naganari 22.25  Baramula
  30  Nanga (WL) 15.25  Jammu
  31  Narkara (WL) 3.25  Budgam
  32  Norrichain (WL) 2.00  Leh
  33 Panyar 10.00  Pulwana
  34  Pargwal (WL)  49.25  Jammu
  35 Sabu 15.00  Leh
  36 Sangral-Asa Chak (WL)  7.00  Pulwana
  37 Shallabugh (WL) 16.00  Srinagar
  38 Shikargah  15.5  Pulwana
  39 Sudhmahadev 142.25  Udbampur
  40  Thein 19.00  Kathua
  41 Tsomoiri (Ramsar Site) WL) 120.00  Leh
  42  Wangat / Chatergul 12.00  Srinagar
  43 Zaloora, Harwan 25.25  Srinagar

Conservation Reserves

State/Union Territory State Area km2  No. of  WLS   Area  km2  Percent of State Area
Andhra Pradesh 275069  21  11618.12  4.22
Arunacha Pradesh 83743 11  7487.75  8.94
Assam 78438 18 1932.01 2.46
Bihar 94163  12  2851.67 3.03
Chhattisgarh 135191 11 3583.19  7.65
Goa 3702 6 647.91 17.50
Gujarat 196022 23 16619.81 8.48
Haryana 44212  8  233.21  0.53
Himachal Pradesh 55673 33 6171.11 11.08
Jammu & Kashmir 222236 15 10243.11  4.61
Jharkhand 79714 11 1955.82 24.45
Karntataka 191791 21  3871.75  2.02
Kerala 38863 15 1819.33 4.68
Madhya Pradesh 3082.45  25  7158.41  2.32
Maharashtra 307713 35 14152.70 4.60
Manipur 22327  1  184.40 0.83
Meghalaya 22429 3 34.20 0.15
Mizoram 21081  8  1090.75  5.17
Nagaland 16579 3 20.34 0.12
Orissa 155707 18 6969.15 4.48
Punjab 50362 12 323.79 0.64
Rajasthan 342239  25  5379.26 1.57
Sikkim 7096 7 399.10 5.62
Tamil Nadu 130058  21  3521.95 2.71
Tripura 10486 4 566.93 5.41
Uttar Pradesh 240928 23 5221.88 2.17
Uttarakhand 53483  6 2418.61  4.52
West Bengal 88752  15  1203..28  1.36
Andaman & Nicobar 82.49 96 389.39 4.72
Chandigarh 114 2 2 6.01 22.82
Dadra & Nagar Haveli  491  1 92.16 18.77
Daman & Diu 112 1  2.18 1.95
Delhi 1483 1  8.77 0.59
Lakshadweep 32 1  0.01 0.03
Pondicherry 480 1 3.90 0.81
India 3287263  514 118150  3.59

Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park and
Keibul Lamjao (National Park)

Status Survey of Endangered Species Status survey
on the six species were undertaken viz., Swamp
Deer, Mouse Deer, Goral, Chinkara, Desert Cat,
Gangetic Dolphin, Blackbuck and Four horned
antelope.

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