(IGP) Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013 – PIB “Topic : Improving Forecasting Services”

(IGP) Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013

Chapter: Gist of Press Information
Bureau Articles

Topic: Improving Forecasting Services

Q. Which stations have been covered under network of air pollution

A network for air pollution monitoring stations has been set
up at Allahabad, Jodhpur, Kodaikanal, Minicoy, Mohanbari, Nagpur, Port Blair,
Pune, Srinagar and Visakhapatnam to collect rain samples for chemical analysis
and measurement of atmospheric turbidity with the objective of documenting the
long-term changes in the composition of trace species of the atmosphere.

Specific services pertaining to the assessment of likely air pollution
impacts arising from thermal power generation, industries and mining activities
have also been provided.

Q. How Fishery advisory helps fishermen in fishing activities?

Sea Surface Temperature (SST), the indicative parameter of
the environment is most easily observed on satellite images. The availability of
food is an important factor which controls occurrence of fish, their abundance
and migration in the sea. Chlorophyll-a is an indicator of the availability of
food for fish.

These forecasts are routinely given thrice-a-week and are
valid for a period of three days along with the ocean state forecast. These
advisories are given in nine local languages and English through the web email,
fax, radio and TV as well as electronic display boards in fishing harbours and
information kiosks. It has been estimated that 40,000 fishermen use these
advisories. It saves a lot of fuel and time (60-70 per cent) and thus allows for
efficient fishing. It has been estimated that the success rate is around 80 per

Q. Indian Ocean Forecasting System (INDOFOS)?

The Indian Ocean Forecasting System (INDOFOS) launched in
February 2010 includes forecasts of ocean wave height, wave direction, Sea
Surface Temperature (SST), surface currents, Mixed Layer Depth (MLD) and depth
of 200 C isotherms for the next five days at six hourly intervals.

The beneficiaries of INDOFOS are traditional and mechanized
fishermen, the maritime boards, the Indian Navy, the Coast Guard shipping
companies and petroleum industries, energy industries and academic institutions.
Location-specific models for wave forecasts for Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka
and Pondicherry have been set up which are being extensively used by port

Q. What are the initiatives taken to harness ocean mineral resources?

India has been planning to harness ocean mineral resources. This requires the
development of a set of three pieces of equipment, viz., In-situ soil tester,
Remotely Operable Vehicles (ROV), and a deep sea crawler.

The in-situ soil tester for measuring sea bed soil properties
and the ROV were successfully tested in April, 2010 at a depth of 5300 m.
complete hardware and software for the instrumentation and control systems were
developed indigenously. The crawler to collect nodules has been tested at a
depth of 450 m off the Malvan coast.

Q. What is the technological advancement in the field of marine ornamental

The development of hatchery technology of commercially
important species is a major area for the providing alternate employment to
fishermen. Black lip pearl oysters are being produced at the Andaman hatchery.
Breeding and rearing technology for marine ornamental fishes, viz., eight
species of Clown fishes and ten species of Damsel fishes has been perfected.
Techniques for captive breeding, larva development and the mass culture of
juveniles on four species of gastropods have been perfected. The technology has
been transferred to local fishermen.

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