(Online Course) GS Concepts : Science and technology in India – Biotechnology in India

Subject : Science and technology in
Chapter : Biotechnology

Topic: Biotechnology in India

Question : Briefly discuss the applications of
Biotechnology in Health and Medicine in India.

Ans. Biotechnology in India
(Health and Medicine) : has wide range of applications in
medicine. While dealing with diseases, applications of biotechnology include
prevention, diagnosis, and cure of diseases.

Dear Candidate, This Material is from
General Studies Mains Study Kit for Civil Services Main Examinations. For Details

Through human genetics,
Biotechnology has been useful in genetic counselling, antenatal diagnosis and
gene therapy. In hereditary diseases, key genes are flawed or missing. Gene
therapy attempts to either modify or replace the key genes, thus correcting the
abnormality. Biotechnology has enabled in production of safe, effective, cheap
vaccines at commercial quantity in short period to immunize population against
epidemics. Also R&D in Biotechnology has resulted in production (or expected to
be produced in near future) of vaccines against Japanese encephalitis, Hepatitis
B, Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria, rabies virus, foot and mouth disease

Biotechnology has enabled in the
development of bio diagnostic kits like DNA probes and monoclonal antibodies
(including ELISA tests) for diagnosis if various diseases like Gilarriasis,
hepatitis-B. malaria, kala-azar, typhoid, std and antenatal diagnosis (foetus
with a genetic defect).

Biotechnology has wide
therapeutic applications as well. Biotechnology was first used in medicine for
growing cultures of molds in order to produce antibiotics. Today a number of
antibiotics such as penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxycillin can be
produced. Hormones like growth hormone, insulin (both are proteins) can be
produced by micro organisms that have been genetically modified. Artificial
generation is especially useful in cases where hormone to be made is a protein
and can-therefore be made directly from a single gene. Biotechnology also helps
in development of therapeutic proteins like interferons, production of usokinase
(which dissolves blood clots) factor VIII (blood clotting factor). Transcription
factor based drugs, oligo nucleotide anti sense drugs are exciting developments
in therapeutic biotechnology.

Biotechnology can also be used
for fertility control. Efforts are being made for developing safe, effective,
long lasting and -reversible contraceptives. Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI),
Lucknow has developed an oral, once-a-week, non-hormonal contraceptive pill
called ‘Lentchroman’ which is sold commercially as Saheli. It is the only
non-hormonal contraceptive pill of the world. DNA fingerprinting and
auto-antibody finger printing are a great boon to forensic medicine for
facilitating the identification of criminals like murderers and rapists through
the study of DNA or antibodies from blood, semen, urine etc.

Go Back To Main Page

Leave a Reply