(Online Course) Pub Ad for IAS Mains: Chapter: 11 (Rural Development) – Historical Perspective (Paper -2)

Paper – 2
Chapter: 11 (Rural Development)

Historical Perspective

  1. Background to PRI
  2. Development of PRI in post independence period
  3. Early 90s (73rd Amend Act)
  4. Critical Analyses
    – Areas of deficiency
  5. Historical Perspective PRI have an indigenous root
  • We have had concept of Panchayats working as judicial, executive &
    legislative forms at grass root
  • Though a pan Indian phenomenon, these have been variations in terms
    nature, composition & functions.
Dear Candidate, This Material is from Public Administration Study Kit for
Civil Services Main Examinations. For Details

Click Here

North India

2 types

  1. Gram Panchayats
    Secular institutions dealing with affair of Executive legislative &
  2. Caste Panchyats to enforce caste norms by every Caste.

Southern States

The caste panchayats was itself in the Gram Panchayat.

During Mughal Period there was dilution in powers of Panchayats.

Pachayats as indigenous governing systems faced threat in British Rule Coming
of East India company & British started systematizing administration based on
rule of law and came out with judicial & executive laws. These had on impact on
grass root as well setting up of local administration further challenged
Panchayats 1687 – Local administration in Madras not an elected rather nominated

Significant efforts for local government were taken post 1857. Initiatives
beyond 1857 to bring local government were primarily financial in nature,
administration in nature but not political. The Process was further expedited by
recommendation of famine commission of 1881. 1857 Britain reels under deep
financial crises also realized that to rule properly it must have roots at grass
root/bottom all these resulted in Lord Mayo’s Resolution regarding local
government majority of it was to be nominated. It was Local government not local
self government (no Political Feature) Focus on relieving financial burden.

Lord Ripons Resolution of 1882 or Local self government the political
tone of local government came by Lord Ripon’s resolution of 1882 of local self
government. Locally elected local government.

2/3rd members to be elected and charred by non official contradictory to
basic British ethos. In response there was stiff reactance by British
bureaucracy & British government proposal was thus slowly implemental and in
late 19th century it was withdrawn early 20th century the political demand for
local self government came up 1906 session of congress some initiatives in thus
regard were taken in Government of India Act of 1919.

Provision of Abject in Transferred Last

Subsequently followed by Government Act 1935

Various legislations was came in various provinces but could not start as
Britain was engaged in war. Same status continued till 1947.

Post independence framing of Constitution which had 2 views

Ambedkar’s – “Village Panchayats have been ruination of India It is
surprising my that those who advocate democracy & freedom are supporting
Panchayats what is Panchayat?, heaven of parochialism den of ignorance,
communalism and narrow mindedness and I am happy that Constituent assembly has
chosen individual and not village as the unit of administration”

Gandhian View

Concept of Village

Republic to be a unit of self sufficiency and also of self government.

The Gandhian view point is known as concept of “OCEANIC CIRCLE” power to flow
from bottom to top.

In actuality the Gandhian view was initially not there but due to his
resistance it was included in Directive Principles of State Policy.


Go Back To Main Page

Leave a Reply