Sample Materials for CSAT Paper -1 (G.S.) Pre 2013: “Science & Technology: Information Technology”

Materials From Our Study Notes for CSAT Paper -1 (G.S.) Pre 2013

Subject: Science & Technology:
Topic: Information Technology

Status of IT Sector

The developments in the field of information technology have been
revolutionising information collection and dissemination. Convergence is new
technological revolution profoundly influencing the media scenario
satellites and optic fibres are being used as infrastructure for
transmitting information for telecommunication computers and broadcasting.

Ques. 1 : Define Broadband and discuss its significance?

Ans. Broadband : Broadband may be, defined as a communication technology,
providing combination of Video On Demand (VOD) broadcast, television, fast
internet access streaming media, games music and telephony services from a
single network.
The concept of broadband, as popularly marketed, ensures high-speed
connectivity between the service providers and the access users delivering
voice, data and video with high degree of inter activity. Putting it in
simple words, broadband is inter-play of triple services or convergence of
voice, data and video on one pipe with high speed. The two major essentials
of broadband are multi-service component and high speed.
In short, broadband is a ‘convergence’ technology combining
telecommunication entertainment and web-based activities into a cohesive
integrated whole.
India Broadband Economy Vision 2010 has stated that the networks providing
minimum download speed of 256 kbps can be labelled as high speed and hen
broadband network.

Significance of broadband technology

The broadband technology has a potential to yield manifold social and
economic benefits. It can act as tool of development by enabling wide-spread
access and adopting at threshold pricing. Nevertheless there is no doubt
that if efficiently delivered broadband will be the most luring service
available at the hands of consumer and synergy thus generated will have an
enormous impact on economic development of the country in the following
1. Increase in overall Employment Opportunities.
2. Growth in national output level.
3. Increase in productivity levels of existing workforce.
4. Transformation of Indian Economy towards service sector based economy.
5. Amplify the business network to create new market.
6. Affordable access will result in social savings reducing the digital

Ques. 2 : Give an account of the India’s Broadband Economy Vision-2020”

Ans. India’s Broadband Economy Vision – 2020 : It has dynamically
visualised broadband economy with stated Vision, drive ubiquitous broadband
for every Indian, accelerating India’s economic development and improvement
in quality of life; in the process making India one of the top five
broadband countries in the world by 2010.


1. To achieve a minimum 10 million subscribers by 2010 and 35 million
subscribers by 2020 in urban India.
2. To achieve broadband coverage for at least 50% of rural population by
2010 and 100% by 2020 through rural broadband kiosks.
3. To make appropriate and locally relevant e-education, e-health,
e-governance, e- commerce and employment opportunities through broadband
connectivity to all cities, towns and villages in India.

Ques. 3 : Discuss in brief the current status of Broadband penetration
and the key applications of Broadband?

Ans. Current Status of Broadband Penetration : According report of point
Topic, a leading research company, the world broadband users have
meteorically risen from 17 million in 2001 to over 70 million in 2003.
Country Penetration
(lines per 100)
USA 8.71
Japan 10.7
UK 5.3
South Korea 2.43
India 0.02

Key Applications

In the introductory phase, the entertainment will be the prime driver for
broadband penetration with proven stability and acceptability but later
focus of all the stakeholders will shift to the diverse applications that
improve quality of life. The key sectors which will be benefited are
Entertainment on Demand (EOD), Education, Health and Governance.

Ques. 4 : Discuss in brief Entertainment on Demand (EOD)?

Ans. Entertainment on Demand (EOD) : The EOD will be a killer application
for broadband with multi-service mix through a single network. The
interactive and high quality audio and video offered by broadband along with
wide range of applications and simultaneous use of high speed interne
connectivity and telephone service make it attractive proposition for
households. The key applications of EOD are.
(1) Video on Demand (VOD): It is interactive and customised service having
(virtual library of movies, sporting events, game shows, show serials, from
which user may select whatever he wants to view or experience.
(2) Music Downloads: On similar lines, is the music downloads, where the
digital format enables the identification and selection of specific tracks
from a huge collection of hundred thousand tracks rather than buying a whole
(3) On-line Gaming: Globally on-line gaming has been popular broadband
application and has played an instrumental  role in accelerating the
broadband penetration in households of Europe and America. If varies from
games like Chess and Scrabble to multi-role playing games that can involve
thousands of participants in virtual mode. Sport games are highly popular as
it provides high degree of interactivity and extensive use of animation and
music, making gaming more lively.
(4) Video Chat: It is used in communication with friends and family members
in other cities. E-Commerce activity has led to interaction between buyer
and seller through video chats.

Ques. 5 : Briefly discuss the application of Broadband in Education

Ans. Education : e-Education: Education through electronic media, widely
termed as e-education. This incor-porating of digital environment in
dissemination of academic input transforms traditional system to more
interactive mode, that delivers superior learning at much less cost.
The process of delivering live and interactive lectures from leading
instructor and training institutes, on demand will upgrade the quality of
service offered and initial lot of knowledge sharing between students and
On-line Distance Education: The best way to address the problem of
illiteracy in remote areas, is to provide on-line distance education through
a high-speed and good quality of service. It seems attractive proposition,
but real challenge to create locally relevant educational content.
Virtual Library: Another feature of education over broadband is creating a
virtual library that is totally real time, irrespective of location and

Ques. 6 : Briefly discuss the application of Broadband in Health Sector?

Ans. Health

(a) Telemedicine: This technology used information and communication
networks to assist and deliver clinical, services in rural and remote areas,
where geographical distance is barrier between health care provider and
patient. It has also enabled to establish link between two or more health
care units for purpose of diagnosis, treatment e-Health: In recent years,
the new broadband aided tele-medicine expanded its scope by including
non-clinical medical services like research and administration along with
delivery of clinical services: All this could be made possible with the help
of broadband enabled network computing, video conferencing, specialised
application software database management systems.
Advantages of e-Health
1. The high quality diagnosis of complex ailments through an easy access to
visual information necessary for clinical decision support system.
2. High communication link established make it possible local general
practitioner to perform a complex medical surgery under guidance of
3. It will enable health professionals to hold On-line discussions,
knowledge sharing and update of latest developments

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Ques. 7 : Briefly discuss the application of Broadband in

Ans. Governance
e-Governance: It refers to use of IT, especially web-based technologies,
internet communication and inter-connected applications enhancing easy
access to and efficient delivery of government services to citizens,
business and employees.
Broadband aided governance aims at seamless networking with a friendly,
Convenient, transparent and inexpensive government machinery. The areas
where broadband can contribute in making machinery more efficient is
(i) Administrative Processes: Broadband enabled Wide Area Network Making the
Collection and disbursement of information much faster and efficient: The
financial management, become easier and transparent. The other areas where
broadband enabled networks are useful planning, organising, implementation
and auditing.
(ii) E-Connectivity help in speedy delivery of services to masses.

Ques. 8 : Point out the hurdles in the growth of Broadband
in India?

Hurdles in Growth of Broad band in India
1. Lack of awareness and maturity levels of Indian customer: The triple play
of voice, data and video is still an inconceivable idea for majority of
Indians, coupled with fear of it being an expensive proposition.
2. Lack of appropriate local content.
3. Expensive Service: Broadband Subscription rates are higher because of
higher infrastructure costs.
4. Low quality of Cable TV infrastructure and lack of organisation.

Ques. 9 : What is convergence?

Ans. Convergence : It has been used as a loose
umbrella term to describe all developments involving the coming together of
telecommunications, information technology, media and entertainment
It is evident that convergence is not just about technology. It is about
service and about new ways of doing business and interacting with society.
International Telecom Union has a five-point definition for convergence:
1. Integration of customer end terminal equipment, devices such as telephone
television, computer.
2. Provision of various communication services such as .text, data, image
multimedia and video over existing infrastructure over single transmission
3. Capability of the same technology to offer various services.
4. Different services under a converged licensing regime.
5. Fixed Mobile substitution/Convergence.

Convergence and regulatory Mechanism

Convergence is the hub of Convergent Services and tries to
come up with its own problems. There  is a need for common
technological standards, so various technological components are made
compatible to each other. The question of responsibility of security and
digital rights is a complicated issue.

Ques. 10 : Give an account of the legal framework regarding

Ans. Legal Framework : Many countries have put together
their legal framework for the convergent economy that they envisage. But it
is seen as putting the cart before the horse. But others have described it
as futuristic but an indication of preparedness and foresight on part of
Indian Communication Convergence’s Bill objective is to facilitate carriage
and content of communications of all kinds. It also provides for an
autonomous commission to be called the Communications Commission of India to
regulate all these activities keeping in mind that the competitive level
playing field environment with smooth interconnection to be provided for
industry while also ensuring that offerings are in the consumer interest and
their rights are protected.
This Law will replace other existing legislations in the country — Indian
Telegraph Act, 1885; Indian Wireless Telegraph Act, 1931; Telegraph Wires
(Unlawful Possession Act, 1985; TRAI Act, 1987; Cable Television Networks
(Regulation) Act, 1995.

Ques. 11 : Briefly discuss the Impact of convergence?

Ans. Impact of Convergence : There would be a shift in basic
concepts of business and business operations of account of convergence. One
of biggest benefactors will be the ordinary citizen. The E-governance which
will be transparent, accessible governance would be single most significant
impact of convergence. Convergence can also become a major leveller,
especially in India if e-governance and social upliftment initiatives, using
convergence infrastructure, take off in the country.
At present e-governance projects live only for as long as proactive
initiator of the project in shape of administrative officer is in charge.
The challenge would be to provide sustainable e-governance projects so that
benefits of convergence can percolate to every individual in the country.
In corporate sector, convergence will lead to larger entities or would
entities get dismembered according to activity and eventual de-institutionalisation
so that the individual entrepreneur provides services on demand.
Disintegration of boundaries: Convergence Laws cannot be watertight and
confined to individual countries. Convergence would lead to disintegration
of boundaries, in a sense Countries, even those with divergent political
structures would have to consult each other with respect to this.
Issue of responsibility in case of violation. Who will be responsible for
violation Laws is complicated issue. There is enormous task of making almost
everyone in industry and government technology aware. The recent arrest of
the CEO of through which pornographic material was advertised for
sale (but which was not actual sold through Bazee), was a case in point led
to much debate. Does clicking on the agree icon (Common requirement in many
net-based activities) make for a legal contract or not?

Ques. 12 : Define Animation. Discuss its status in India?

Ans. Animation And Gamings

It is technique of making animated cartoons. Animated
Cartoon is a film made by photographing a series of drawings, each showing a
stage of movement slightly changed from the one before, so that the figures
in them seem to move when the drawings are projected in rapid succession.
With developments in convergence of video, IT, new software programme and
animation tools were developed which could multiply the pictures and control
movement of each feature that picture.
Recently the artificial intelligence programme known as Massive to develop
spectacular battles of blockbuster ‘Lord of the Rings’.
India’s Growth Potential in Animation and Gaming
The annual study on Animation and Gaming Industry in India by NASSCOM
(National Association of Software and Service Companies) estimated that the
animation market (from developers perspective) is around $285 million for
Key findings of NASSCOM Report
1. It estimated the size of industry (demand perspective) will witness
compound annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 8% and is expected to US $ 75 billion
in 2009. The global animation market from developers perspective is to
increase to US 35 billion from current US $ 25 billion.
2. The size of the Indian market from (developers perspective) was estimated
grow by CAGR of 35% from 2005-2009 and reach US $ 950 million by 2009.
3. The market for gaming is expected to witness a CAGR of 78% to US $ 300
million by 2009 from US $ 30 million in 2005.

Indian Scenario

India’s IT expertise combined with the entrepreneurial drive
of its companies, make it well positioned to tap the growing global
industry. The rapid growth of mobile telephony, increase in PC with
animation content will fuel the growth in domestic market too. If India
focuses on talent pool and leveraging our cost competitiveness, animation
and gaming look like the next big thing.
India is fast going up the animation outsourcing Ladder. Though a recent
entrant is global market demand for India’s production services is growing
at a fast pace. With global entertainment companies Disney, Imax, Warner.
Brothers and Sony signing up huge contracts with Indian animation companies
and design studios are gradually establishing their credentials overseas and
building the image in high potential global market.
India is the only country besides the US with good entertainment market and
production base (Bollywood) as well as equally strong talent in IT, which
makes case for success in animation all the more strong. However, currently
even while global market is emerging at $ 40 billion, India is nowhere in
top, but seen as third or fourth destination.

Ques. 13 : What is voice over Internet Protocol?

Ans. Voice over internet protocol (VOIP)/ Internet
Telephoney : Voice over Internet Protocol is a technology that allows to
make telephone calls using broadband Internet Connection instead of a
regular (or analog) phone. It is routing of voice conversations over the
internet or any other Internet Protocol (IP) based network. Thus, protocols
used to carry voice signals over the IP network are commonly referred to as
VOIP. VOIP today is something like Internet in early 1990’s. The speed of
development and widespread impacts of VOIP will be comparable to that of the
VOIP converts the voice signal from your telephone into a digit signal that
travel over internet. If one is calling on regular phone number, the signal
is converted back at other end. VOIP can allow to make special call directly
from computer. VOIP phone or traditional phone using adaptor.

Ques. 14 : Discuss in brief the advantages of VOIP?

Ans. Advantages of VOIP
1. Firstly, and most obviously, there are significant a financial savings on
running the network itself, as single network is used for carrying both
voice and data.
2. The integration of computer applications and communication technologies
has immense potential for changing working environment.
(a) VOIP allows organisations to integrate their telephone, fax, e-mail and
other application makes possible unified messaging that facilitates intra
organisational communi-cation.
(b) VOIP can be used for flexible working practices, where members work from
home or in dispersed virtual teams, using LAN and video conferencing.
(c) VO1P contributes to effective knowledge management strategy. In larger
organisations, the more information must be shared for efficient
communication system;
(d) VOIP enhances relationships with customers: It allows organisations
through their call centres to effectively address problems of customers
through web call, e-mail, and telephone.

Ques. 15 : Give a brief description of obstacles in the
growth of VOIP technology?

Ans. Obstacle to VOIP
1. The main obstacle is high initial capital costs in creating new networks.
This initial investment could be made cost-effective, if there is greater
Broadband penetration with variety of services offered.
2. IP telephone is plagued by doubts over cone quality by end users.
However, these problems are now diminishing with improvement in high-speed
data transmission technology.
3. VOIP is a truly disruptive technology. Since telecommunications is a
regulated industry, the key issue whether VOIP should be regulated or not.
The main regulatory issues around VOIP are as follows:
(i) Call Interception: Law enforcement agencies will find it harder to
intercept telephone calls, because such calls exist only as digital packages
once they leave the callers handset. In age of global terrorism, this is a
serious concern.
(ii) Caller Location: IP addresses do not currently identify the user of
(iii) IP services will find difficult to provide support services such as
Directory assistance, caller line identification etc.

Test Your Knowledge

1.Consider the
following statements:

  1. Broadband may be defined as a
    communication technology, providing combination of video on
    Demand broadcast, television, fast internet access streaming
    media games, music and telephony services from a single

  2.  India Broadband Economy Vision 2010
    has stated that the networks providing minimum download
    speed of 356 Kbps can be labelled as high speed and then
    broadband network.

Which of the above statements is/are
true ?

  1. 1 only

  2. 2 only

  3. All of the above

  4. None of the above


1.Consider the
following statements about India’s Broadband Economy

  1. To achieve a minimum 25 million
    subscriber by 2020 in Urban India.

  2. To achieve broadband coverage for at
    least 100% by 2020 through rural broadband kiosks.

Which of the above statements is/are
true ?

  1. 1 only

  2. 2 only

  3. All of the above

  4. None of the above


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Answer of Question 1: A

Answer of Question 2: B

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